Monday, Nov. 28, 2016
Several press releases will be distributed to the media highlighting research presented at RSNA 2016. RSNA's media outreach helps the public gain a greater understanding of radiology and its role in personal healthcare. The following research developments were released to the media in advance of the annual meeting:
Musical Training Creates New Brain Connections in Children (PD235-SD-WEA1)
Taking music lessons increases brain fiber connections in children and may be useful in treating autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), according to a study from the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez in Mexico City. The researchers studied 23 healthy children between the ages of five and six years old. All of the children were right handed and had no history of sensory, perception or neurological disorders. None of the children had been trained in any artistic discipline in the past. The study participants underwent pre- and post-musical-training evaluation with diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. After nine months of musical training, results showed brain fiber growth and new connections in areas of the brain associated with autism spectrum disorders and ADHD.
Obesity in Adolescence May Cause Permanent Bone Loss (PD219-SD-MOB5)
Teenagers who are obese may be doing irreparable damage to their bones, according to a new study from Harvard Medical School. Researchers recruited 23 obese adolescents with a mean age of 17 years and a mean body mass index of 44 kg/m2. An analysis of bone mineral density, bone microarchitecture and body composition revealed that having a high amount of visceral fat coupled with a low amount of muscle mass puts adolescents at risk for weakened bone structure.
Researchers Generate 3-D Virtual Reality Models of Unborn Babies (PD230-SD-WEB1)
Parents may soon be able to watch their unborn babies grow in realistic 3-D immersive visualizations, thanks to new technology that transforms MRI and ultrasound (US) data into a 3-D virtual reality model of a fetus. The virtual reality fetal 3-D models are remarkably similar to the postnatal appearance of the newborn baby. They recreate the entire internal structure of the fetus, including a detailed view of the respiratory tract, which can aid doctors in assessing abnormalities. A special headset places the user in an immersive environment, complete with heartbeat sounds derived from the US of the fetus. Users can study the 3-D fetal anatomy simply by moving their head.
Diabetes Proves Deadly for Smokers (CH241-SD-SUB1)
While it is well known that smoking causes lung cancer, heavy smokers with diabetes are also at increased risk of death from causes other than lung cancer. Researchers examined the risk for all-cause mortality among people with and without diabetes within the National Lung Screening Trial. They conducted an analysis of the relative risk for overall mortality, lung cancer mortality, and non-lung cancer mortality associated with diabetes, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and pack-years of smoking. Participants with diabetes tended to be older, reported more pack-years of smoking, and had a higher BMI than those without diabetes. The results showed that diabetes doubled the risk for all-cause mortality and non-lung cancer mortality among heavy smokers.
New Studies Provide More Insight into Zika Effects (NR394-SD-WEB2; PD200-SD-SUA1; PD232-SD-WEA3)
Three new studies report on the effects of the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil. The first study identified a pattern of CT brain findings in babies exposed to Zika, including decreased brain volume, simplified gyral pattern, calcifications, ventricular dilatation and prominent occipital bone.
Another study analyzed the imaging results of three target groups affected by Zika: adults who developed acute neurological syndrome, newborns with vertical infection with neurological disorders, and pregnant women with rash outbreaks suggestive of Zika. Many of the adults had symptoms of Guillain-Barré syndrome, and a few showed inflammation of the brain and spinal cord or brain stem and spinal cord lesions. In the newborns, MRI showed orbital injuries and anatomical changes in brain tissue.
In a third study, ultrasound and fetal MRI were performed on pregnant patients with Zika virus infection at different gestational ages. More than half the babies had microcephaly, brain calcifications and loss of brain tissue volume, along with other structural changes.
Today's Press Releases
- Head Impacts Lead to Brain Changes in High School Football Players (SSE20-02)
- Large Study Finds No Evidence for Age-Based Mammography Cut-Off (RC215-15)
- Study Finds Cause of Visual Impairment in Astronauts (SSC11-04)
Tuesday's Press Releases
- Depression in Soldiers Linked to Brain Disruption from Injury (SSJ19-03)
- New Report Warns of Chest Injuries in Children after ATV Accidents (RC313-06)
- Alcohol Consumption Shows No Effect on Coronary Arteries (SSG02-06)
Wednesday's Press Release
- Aerobic Exercise Preserves Brain Volume and Improves Cognitive Function (SSK14-06)
Friday's Press Release
- Short-term Sleep Deprivation Affects Heart Function (SST02-03)
All RSNA 2016 press releases are in the newsroom at RSNA.org/Press16, available on the day of the presentations.